Tree Swallow by Marie ReadTree Swallow copyright Marie Read



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(*One or more authors are members of the Golondrinas network.)



Photo by Eduardo Inigo-Elias


*Dor, Roi, Caren B. Cooper, Irby J. Lovette, Viviana Massoni, Flor Bulit, Marcela Liljesthrom & David W. Winkler. Clock Gene Variation in Tachycineta Swallows. Ecology and Evolution.


*Ferretti, Valentina, Viviana Massoni, Florencia Bulit, David W. Winkler and Irby J. Lovette. Heterozygosity and Fitness Benefits of Extrapair Mate Choice in White-Rumped Swallows (Tachycineta leucorrhoa). Behavioral Ecology (November-December) 22 (6): 1178-1186.

*Dunn, Peter O., David W. Winkler, Linda A. Whittingham, Susan J. Hannon and Raleigh Robertson. A Test of the Mismatch Hypothesis: How is Timing of Reproduction Related to Food Abundance in an Aerial Insectivore. Ecology 92(2): 450-461.

Fredericks, Timothy B., John P. Giesy, Sarah J. Coefield, Rita M. Seston, Melissa M. Haswell, Dustin L. Tazelaar, Patrick W. Bradley, Jeremy N. Moore, Shaun A. Roark and Matthew J. Zwiernik. Dietary Exposure of Three Passerine Species to PCDD/DFs from the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River Floodplains, Midland, Michigan, USA. Environ Monit Assess 172: 91-112.

*Winkler, David W., Kelly K. Hallinger, Daniel R. Ardia, R. J. Robertson, B. J. Stutchbury and R. R. Cohen. Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online.




Photo by Christine Hansen

*Ardia, Daniel R., Jonathan H. Pérez and Ethan D. Clotfelter. Experimental Cooling During Incubation Leads to Reduced Innate Immunity and Body Condition in Nestling Tree Swallows. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 277: 1881-1888.

*Lambrects, M. M., F. Adriaensen, D. R. Ardia, A. V. Artemyev, F. Atienzar, J. Banbura, E. Barba, J. C. Bouvier, J. Comprodon, C. B. Cooper, R. D. Dawson, M. Eens, T. Eeva, B Faivre, L. Z. Garamszegi, A. E. Goodenough, A. G. Gosler, A. Gregoire, S. C. Griffith, L. Gustaffson, L. S. Johnson, W. Kainia, O. Keiss, P. E. Llambias, M. C. Mainwaring, R. Mand, B. Massa, T. D. Mazgajski, A. P. Moller, J. Moreno, B. Naef-Daenzer, J. A. Nisson, A. C. Norte, M. Orell, K. A. Otter, C. R. Park, C. M. Perrins, J. Pinowski, J. Porkert, J. Potti, V. Remes, H. Richner, S. Rytkonen, M. T. Shiao, B. Silverin, T. Slagsvold, H. G. Smith, A. Sorace, M. J. Stenning, I. Stewart, C. F. Thompson, P. Tryjanowski, J. Torok, A. J. van Noordwijk, D. W. Winkler and N. Ziane. The Design of Artificial Nestboxes for the Study of Secondary Hole-Nesting Birds: A Review of Methodological Inconsistencies and Potential Biases. Acta Ornithologica 45: 1-26.

*Bulit, Florencia and Viviana Massoni. Apparent Survival and Return Rate of Breeders in the Southern Temperate White-Rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa. Ibis 153: 190-194.



Photo by Mike Harvey
*Ardia, Daniel R., Jonathan H. Pérez, Elise K. Chad, Margaret A. Voss and Ethan D. Clotfelter. Temperature and Life History: Experimental Heating Leads Female Tree Swallows to Modulate Egg Temperature and Incubation Behavior. Journal of Animal Ecology 78:4-13.

*Ferretti, V. and D. W. Winkler: Polygyny in the Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor: A Result of the Cost of Searching for an Unmmated Male: Journal of Avian Biology 40(3): 290-295.

*Liljesthrom, Marcela, Adrián Schiavini and Juan C. Reboreda. Chilean Swallows (Tachycineta meyeni) Adjust the Number of Feathers Added to the Nest With Time of Breeding. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121(4): 783-788.

*Makarewich, C. A., L. M. Stenzler, V. Ferretti, D. W. Winkler and I. J. Lovette. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers from Three Species of Swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. albilinea, T. bicolor and T. leucorrhoa. Molecular Ecology Resources 9(2): 631-635.

*Morrison, Erin S., Daniel R. Ardia and Ethan D. Clotfelter. Cross-Fostering Reveals Sources of Variation in Innate Immunity and Hematocrit in Nestling Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor. Journal of Avian Biology 000: 1-6.

*Stenzler, Laura M., Christopher A. Makarewich, Aurélie Coulon, Daniel R. Ardia, Irby J. Lovette and David W. Winkler. Subtle Edge-of-Range Genetic Structuring in Transcontinentally Distributed North American Tree Swallows. The Condor 111(3): 470-478. pdf

*Di Iorio, Osvaldo, Florencia Bulit, Florencia Aldatz and Viviana Massoni. Insects Found in Birds' Nests from Argentina: Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot, 1817) [Aves: Hirundinidae], a new host for Acanthocrios Furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, 1928) [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]. Zootaxa 1896: 1-24.

Ghilain, Arnaud and Marc Bélisle. Breeding Success of Tree Swallows Along a Gradient of Agricultural Intensification. Ecological Applications 18(5): 1140-1154.

Hess, Paul J., Carl G. Zenger and Robert A. Schmidt. Weather-Related Tree Swallow Mortality and Reduced Nesting Effort. Northeastern Naturalist 15/4:630-631.

*Llambías, Paulo E., Peter Wrege and David W. Winkler. Effects of Site Fidelity and Breeding Performance on Mate Retention in a Short-Lived Passerine, the Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor. Journal of Avian Biology 39:493-499.

*Perez, Jonathan H., Daniel R. Ardia, Elise K. Chad and Ethan D. Clotfelter. Experimental Heating Reveals Nest Temperature Affects Nestling Condition in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Biology Letters 4: 468-471.

Townsend, Jason M., Esteban Garrido, and Danilo A. Mejia. Nests and Nesting Behavior of Golden Swallow (Tachycineta euchrysea) in Abandoned Bauxite Mines in the Dominican Republic. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(4): 867-871.


*Mandel, J. T., J. M. Ratcliffe, D. J. Cerasale and D. W. Winkler. Laterality and Flight: Concurrent Tests of Side-Bias and Optimality in Flying Tree Swallows. Plos One 3(3) Art No. el748.

*Llambias, P. E., P. Wrege and D. W. Winkler. Effects of Site Fidelity and Breeding Performance on Mate Retention in a Short-Lived Passerine, the Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor. Journal of Avian Biology 39: 493-499.


*Ardia, Daniel R. Site-and Sex-Level Differences in Adult Feeding Behaviour and its Consequences to Offspring Quality in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) Following Brood-Size Manipulation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 85: 847-854.

*Ardia, Daniel R. The Ability to Mount Multiple Immune Responses Simultaneously Varies Across the Range of the Tree Swallow. Ecography 30: 23-30.

*Haussmann, F. F., D. W. Winkler, C. E. Huntington, I. C. T. Nisbet and C. M. Vleck. Telomerase Activity is Maintained Throughout the Lifespan of Long-Lived Birds. Experimental Gerontology 42(7): 610-618.

*Hosner, P. A. and D. W. Winkler. Dispersal Distances of Tree Swallows Estimated from Continent-Wide and Limited-Area Data. Journal of Field Ornithology 78(3):1-8.

*Massoni, Viviana, Florencia Bulit & Juan Carolos Reboreda. Breeding Biology of the White-Rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Ibis 149: 10-17.

*Palacios, M., J. Cunnick, D. W. Winkler and C. Vleck. Immunosenescence in Some But Not All Immune Components in a Free-Living Vertebrate, the Tree Swallow. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B274(1612): 951-957.

*Winkler, D. W. Roosts and Migrations of Swallows (Hirundinidae). Journal of Avian Biology 37: 252-259.



Photo by Mike Harvey

*Ardia, Daniel R. and Ethan D. Clotfelter. Individual Quality and Age Affect Responses to an Energetic Constraint in a Cavity-Nesting Bird. Behavioral Ecology 23: 259-266.

*Ardia, Daniel R., Caren B. Cooper and André A. Dhondt. Warm Temperatures Lead to Early Onset of Incubation, Shorter Incubation Periods and Greater Hatching Asynchrony in Tree Swallows Tachycineta Bicolor at the Extremes of Their Range. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 137-142.

*Ardia, Daniel R. and Elizabeth B. Rice. Variation in Heritability of Immune Function in the Tree Swallow. Evolutionary Ecology 20: 491-500.

*Ardia, Daniel R., Matthew F. Wasson and David W. Winkler. Individual Quality and Food Availability Determine Yolk and Egg Mass and Egg Composition in Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 252-259.

*Ardia, Daniel R., Jonathan H. Pérez and Ethan D. Clotfelter. Nest Box Orientation Affects Internal Temperature and Nest Site Selection by Tree Swallows. Journal of Field Ornithology. 77(3): 339-344.

*Bitton, Pierre-Paul, Russell D. Dawson and Erin L. O'Brien. Influence of Intraclutch Egg-Mass Variation and Hatching Asynchrony on Relative Offspring Performance Within Broods of an Altricial Bird. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84: 1721-1726.

*Massoni, David W. Winkler and Juan C. Reboreda. Brood Parasitism of White-Rumped Swallows by Shiny Cowbirds. Journal of Field Ornithology 77(1): 80-84.


Photo by Tyler Hallman
*Ardia, Daniel R. Tree Swallows Trade Off Immune Function and Reproductive Effort Differently Across Their Range. Ecology 86(8): 2040-2046. pdf

*Ardia, Daniel R., Individual Quality Mediates Trade-Offs Between Reproductive Effort and Immune Function in Tree Swallows. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 517-524.

*Bidwell, Mark T. and Russell D. Dawson. Calcium Availability Limits Reproductive Output of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) in a Nonacidified Landscape. The Auk 122(1):246-254. pdf

*Dawson, Russell D. and Mark T. Bidwell. Dietary Calcium Limits Size and Growth of Nestling Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor in a Non-Acidified Landscape. Journal of Avian Biology 36: 127-134.

*Dawson, Russell D., Cheyenne C. Lawrie and Erin L. O'Brien. The Importance of Microclimate Variation in Determining Size, Growth and Survival of Avian Offspring: Experimental Evidence from a Cavity Nesting Passerine. Oecologia 144: 499-507.

*Sheldon, Frederick H., Linda A. Whittingham, Robert G. Moyle, Beth Slikas and David W. Winkler. Phylogeny of swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae) Estimated From Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 254-270.

*Winkler, David W., Peter H. Wrege, Paul E. Allen, Tracey L. Kast, Pixie Senesac, Matthew F. Wasson and Patrick J. Sullivan. The Natal Dispersal of Tree Swallows in a Continuous Mainland Environment. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 1080-1090.

*Winkler, D. W.. How Do Migration and Dispersal Interact? In: Birds of Two Worlds: The Ecology and Evolution of Migration, R. Greenbert and P. Marra (editors), Johns Hopkins University Press, pp 401-413.

Whittingham, Linda A., Peter O. Dunn and Jacqueline K. Nooker. Maternal Influences on Brood Sex Ratios: An Experimental Study in Tree Swallows. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272: 1775-1780.




Photo by Maria Stager
*Bowlin, M. S. and D. W. Winkler. Natural Variation in Flight Performance is Related to Timing of Breeding in the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) in New York. The Auk 121: 345-353. pdf

Brzek, Pawel and Marek Konarzewski. Effect of Refeeding on Growth, Development, and Behavior of Undernourished Bank Swallow (Riparia Riparia) Nestlings. The Auk 121(4): 1187-1198. pdf

*Bulit, Florencia y Viviana Massoni. Arquitectura de los Nidos de la Golondrina Ceja Blanca (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) Construidos en Cajas Nido. El Hornero 19(2):69-76.

*Shutler, Dave, Adele Mullie and Robert G. Clark. Tree Swallow Reproductive Investment, Stress, and Parasites. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 442-448.

Shutler, Dave, David J. T. Hussell, Andrew G. Horn, Marty L. Leonard, Robert W. Shutler and Denis Lepage. Breeding Between Tree Swallows from the Same Brood. Journal of Field Ornithology 75(4): 353-358.

*Winkler, D. W., P. H. Wrege, P. E. Allen, T. L. Kast, P. Senesac, M. F. Wasson, P. E. Llambias, V. Ferretti and P. J. Sullivan. Breeding Dispersal and Philopatry in the Tree Swallow. Condor 106:768-776. pdf


Photo by Mike Harvey


*Ardia, D. R., K. A. Schat and D. W. Winkler. Reproductive Effort Reduces Long-Term Immune Function in Tree Swallows. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270: 1387-1392.

Johnson, L. Scott, Larry E. Wimmers, Sara Campbell and Lucy Hamilton. Growth Rate, Size and Sex Ratio of Last-Laid, Last-Hatched Offspring in the Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor. Journal of Avian Biology 34: 35-43.

Jones, Jason. Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor): A New Model Organism? The Auk 120(3): 591-599. pdf

*Shutler, Dave, Stephen D. Petersen, Russell D. Dawson and Adam Campbell. Sex Ratios of Fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) in Nests of Tree Swallows (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae) Exposed to Different Chemicals. Environmental Entomology 32(5): 1045-1048.

*Shutler, Dave and Robert G. Clark. Causes and Consequences of Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) Dispersal in Saskatchewan. The Auk 120(3): 619-631. pdf



Photo by Mike Harvey

Chaplin, Susan, Mora L. Cervenka and Alison C. Mickelson. Thermal Environment of the Nest During Development of Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) Chicks. The Auk 119(3): 845-851. pdf

McCarty, John P. The Number of Visits to the Nest by Parents is an Accurate Measure of Food Delivered to Nestlings in Tree Swallows. Journal of Field Ornithology 73(1): 9-14.

*Whittingham, Linda A., Beth Slikas, David W. Winkler, and Frederick H. Sheldon. Phylogeny of the Tree Swallow Genus, Tachycineta (Aves. Hirundinidae), by Bayesian Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22(3): 430-441.



Photo by Becky Windsor


*Hasselquist, D., M. F. Wasson and D. W. Winkler. Humoral Immunocompetence Correlates with Date of Egg-Laying and Reflects Work Load in Female Tree Swallows. Behavioral Ecology 12:93-97.

McCarty, John P. Variation in Growth of Nestling Tree Swallows Across Multiple Temporal and Spatial Scales. The Auk 118(1): 176-190. pdf

Thomas, Krista and Dave Shutler. Ectoparasites, Nestling Growth, Parental Feeding Rates, and Begging Intensity of Tree Swallows. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 346-353.


Clotfelter, Ethan D., Linda A. Whittingham and Peter O Dunn. Laying Order, Hatching Asynchrony and Nestling Body Mass in Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor. Journal of Avian Biology 31: 329-334.

*Dunn, Peter O., Kevin J. Thusius, Kevin Kimber and David W. Winkler. Geographic and Ecological Variation in Clutch Size of Tree Swallows. The Auk 117(1): 215-221. pdf

Michaud, Trista and Marty Leonard. The Role of Development, Parental Behavior, and Nestmate Competition in Fledging of Nestling Tree Swallows. The Auk 117(4): 996-1002. pdf

Murphy, Michael T., Brian Armbrecth, Ekaterini Vlamis and Aaron Pierce. Is Reproduction by Tree Swallows Cost Free? The Auk 117(4): 902-912. pdf

*Peer, Katharina, Raleigh J. Robertson and Bart Kempenaers. Reproductive Anatomy and Indices of Quality in Male Tree Swallows: The Potential Reproductive Role of Floaters. The Auk 117(1): 74-81. pdf

*Winkler, David W. The Phylogenetic Approach to Avian Life Histories: An Important Complement to Within-Population Studies. The Condor 102:52-59. pdf



Photo by Becky Windsor


*Dunn, Peter O. and David W. Winkler. Climate Change has Affected the Breeding Date of Tree Swallows Throughout North America. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266: 2487-2490.

*McCarty, John P. and David W. Winkler. Foraging Ecology and Diet Selectivity of Tree Swallows Feeding Nestlings. The Condor 101: 246-254. pdf

*McCarty, John P. and David W. Winkler. Relative Importance of Environmental Variables in Determining the Growth of Nestling Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor. Ibis 141: 286-296.

Moore, Owen R., Bridget J. M. Stutchbury, and James S. Quinn. Extrapair Mating System of an Asynchronously Breeding Tropical Songbird: The Mangrove Swallow. The Auk 116 (4): 1039-1046. pdf

*Sheldon, F. H., L. a. Whittingham and D. W. Winkler. A Comparison of Cytochrome b and DNA Hybridization Data Bearing on the Phylogeny of Swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 11:320-331.



Photo by Maria Stager

*Kempenaers, Bart, Richard B. Lanctot and Raleign J. Robertson. Certainty of Paternity and Paternal Investment in Eastern Bluebirds and Tree Swallows. Animal Behavior 55: 845-860.



Photo by Becky Windsor


McCarty, John P. Aquatic Community Characteristics Influence the Foraging Patterns of Tree Swallows. The Condor 99: 210-213. pdf

*Taali M. Rooneem and Raleigh J. Robertson. The Potential to Lay Replacement Clutches by Tree Swallows. The Condor 99: 228-231.

Robbins, Mark B., Gary H. Rosenberg, Francisco Sornoza Molina and Marco A. Jácome. Taxonomy and Nest Description of the Tumbes Swallow (Tachycineta [albilinea] stolzmanni). Ornthological Monographs, No. 48, Studies in Neotropical Ornithology Honoring Ted Parker: 609-612.



bahama swallow
Photo by Maria Stager

*Barber, Colleen A., Raleigh J. Robertson and Peter T. Boag. The High Frequency of Extra-Pair Paternity in Tree Swallows is Not an Artifact of Nest Boxes. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 38: 425-430.

Teather, Kevin. Patterns of Growth and Asymmetry in Nestling Tree Swallows. Journal of Avian Biology 27 (4): 302-310.

*Winkler, David W. and Paul E. Allen. The Seasonal Decline in Tree Swallow Clutch Size: Physiological Constraint or Strategic Adjustment? Ecology 77(3): 922-932.



Photo by Becky Windsor


Lombardo, Michael P., Ruth M. Bosman, Christine A. Faro, Stephen G. Houtteman and Timothy S. Kluisza. Effect of Feathers as Nest Insulation on Incubation Behavior and Reproductive Performance of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). The Auk 112 (4): 973-981. pdf

Lozano, George A. and Paul T. Handord. A Test of An Assumption of Delayed Plumage Maturation Hypotheses Using Female Tree Swallows. Wilson Bulletin 107(1): 153-164.

*Winkler, D. W. ad P. E. Allen. Effects of Handicapping on Female Conditions and Reproduction in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). The Auk 112: 737-747. pdf




Photo by Becky Windsor

Lombardo, Michael P. Nest Architecture and Reproductive Performance in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). The Auk 111(4): 814-824. pdf

Lozano, George A. Size, Condition, and Territory Ownership in Male Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Canadian Journal of Zoology 72: 330-333.

Winkler, D. W. Anti-Predator Defense by Neighbours as a Responsive Amplifier of Parental Defense in Tree Swallows. Animal Behaviour 47: 595-605.

Winkler, D. W. and F. H. Sheldon. Phylogenetic Hierarchy in Character Variability and Its Causes: Lessons from Character-State Distributions in Swallows, Hirundinidae. Journal fur Ornithologie 135:342.


Chascomus on line

Photo by Becky Windsor


*Sheldon, F. H. and D. W. Winkler. Intergeneric Phylogenetic Relationships of Swallows Estimated by DNA-DNA Hybridization. The Auk 110 (4) 798-824. pdf

*Winkler, David W. Use and Importance of Feathers as Nest Lining in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). The Auk 110(1): 29-36. pdf

*Winkler, David W. and Frederick H. Sheldon. Evolution of Nest Construction in Swallows (Hirundinidae): A Molecular Phylogenetic Perspective. Proceedings of National Academies of Science 90: 5705-5707.




Photo by Becky Windsor

Dunn, Peter O. and Susan J. Hannon. Effects of Food Abundance and Male Parental Care on Reproductive Success and Monogamy in Tree Swallows. The Auk 109(3): 488-499. pdf

*Goutis, C. and D. W. Winkler. Hungry Chicks and Mortal Parents: A State-Variable Approach to the Breeding Seasons of Birds. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 54: 379-400.

*Winkler, D. W. Causes and Consequences of Variation in Parental Defense Behavior by Tree Swallows. Condor 94: 502-520. pdf


Lombardo, Michael P. Sexual Differences in Parental Effort During the Nestling Period in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). The Auk 108: 393-404. pdf

*Winkler, D. W. Parental Investment Decision Rules in Tree Swallows: Parental Defense, Abandonment and the So-Called Concord Fallacy. Behavioral Ecology 2: 133-142.

*McCarty, J. P. and D. W. Winkler. Use of an Artificial Nestling for Determining the Diet of Nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta Bicolor). Journal of Field Ornithology 62: 211-217.


Finch, Deborah M. Effects of Predation and Competitor Interference on Nesting Success of House Wrens and Tree Swallows. The Condor 92: 674-687. pdf

*Stutchbury, Bridget J. and Raleigh J. Robertson. Do Tree Swallows Use Nest Cavities as Night Roosts During Territory Establishment? Journal of Field Ornithology 61(1):26-33.

Wiggins, David A. Clutch Size, Offspring Quality, and Female Survival in Tree Swallows -- An Experiment. The Condor 92: 534-537. pdf



Photo by Becky Windsor


*Stutchbury, Bridget J. and Raleigh J. Robertson. Two Methods of Sexing Adult Tree Swallows Before They Begin Breeding. Journal of Field Ornithology 58(2): 236-242.

*Stutchbury, Bridget J. and Raleigh J. Robertson. Signaling Subordinate and Female Status: Two Hypotheses for the Adaptive Significance of Subadult Plumage in Female Tree Swallows. The Auk 104: 717-723. pdf




Photo by Becky Windsor

Quinney, Terry E., David J. T. Hussell and C. Davison Ankney. Sources of Variation in Growth of Tree Swallows. The Auk 103(2): 389-400. pdf


Photo by Becky Windsor


Quinney, Terry E. and C. Davison Ankney. Prey Size Selection by Tree Swallows. The Auk 102: 245-250. pdf


Dyrca, Andrzej. Breeding Biology of the Mangrove Swallow Tachycineta albilinea and the Grey-Breasted Martin Progne Chalybea at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ibis 126: 59-66.



Zach, Reto. Hatching Asynchrony, Egg Size, Growth and Fledging in Tree Swallows. The Auk 99: 695-700. pdf

Zach, Reto and Keith R. Mayoh. Weight and Feather Growth of Nestling Tree Swallows. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60: 1080-1090.



Photo by Maria Stager


De Steven, Diane. Clutch Size, Breeding Success and Parental Survival in the Tree Swallow (Iridoprocne bicolor). Evolution 34(2): 278-291.